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2012年職稱英語衛生類A級部分真題(1)

2012-04-11 來源:讀書人 
第1頁:閱讀理解; 第2頁:完型填空

  不丹:幸福勝過財富 1)Bhutan-Where Happiness 2)Outranks Wealth

  What is happines

  really? In conventional development theory, it equals money and prosperity, as measured by 3)GNP (Gross National Product). But Bhutan, the famously remote and beautiful Buddhist kingdom in the Himalaya has been trying out a different concept. 4)Espoused by the country’s king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, its government has been using a standard called GNH, or Gross National Happiness. It has 5)underpinned the country’s approach to change and development.

  After centuries of self-imposed isolation, in 1961, Bhutan opened its doors to the world. The Bhutanese quickly learnt that in the pursuit of economic prosperity, many countries had lost their cultural identitie as well as their spirituality, and 6)compromised their environments. From a Buddhist perspective the burst of consumer-driven, economic growth, and consequently the explosion of affluence in industrialized nation had resulted in widespread spiritual poverty. It was a clear message to the Bhutanese that economic growth alone did not bring contentment.

  However, the government also knew that change was inevitable. So Bhutan had to come up with a different approach to development—something that would monitor and regulate the nature and pace of change without compromising the essence of its citizens’ well-being. Thu GNH was born. GNH, according to the Center of Bhutan Studies in the capital, Thimphu, is not against change. It 7)propounds development by balancing economic development, preservation of the environment, and religious-cultural heritage. The underlying message is that the country should not sacrifice elements important for people’s happiness to gain material development. In short, GNH 8)takes into account not just the flow of money, but also access to healthcare, free time with family, conservation of natural resource and other non-economic factors.

  到底什么是幸福呢?在常見的發展理論中,幸福等同于金錢與繁榮,是用GNP(國民生產總值)衡量的。但不丹,一個位于喜馬拉雅山區,遙遠而美麗的佛教國家,正嘗試一種不同的幸福理念。在國王吉格梅·辛格·旺楚克的支持下,不丹政府采用了一種不同的標準來衡量幸福,叫GNH,即國民幸福總值,這一直是這個國家求變發展的基石。

  歷經了幾個世紀的自我封閉之后,在1961年,不丹終于向世界打開了大門。不丹人很快認識到,在追求經濟繁榮的過程中,許多國家喪失了自己的文化身份以及精神特性,并犧牲了自己的環境。從佛教的角度來看,消費者驅動型經濟的迅猛增長以及隨之而產生的工業化國家中財富的膨脹都會造成普遍的精神貧乏。這讓不丹人清楚地認識到,單純的經濟增長并不能帶來滿足感。

  雖然如此,不丹政府也清楚改變是不可避免的。因此不丹必須尋求一種不同的發展途徑—— 一種能夠監控及規范“變化”的本質和速度,而又不會犧牲其國民基本幸福的方式。GNH因此應運而生。據位于不丹首都廷布的不丹研究中心稱,GNH與改變并不相斥,它提出發展必須在經濟發展、保護環境及保存宗教文化遺產之間取得平衡。其中隱含的信息是,國家不應以犧牲那些對人們的幸福至關重要的東西來獲取物質方面的發展。簡而言之,GNH不但考慮資金流向,而且還顧及衛生保健、家人共處的休閑時間、保護自然資源以及其他非經濟因素。

  In 1998, Bhutan’s Prime Minister, Jigmi Thinley, identified the “Four Pillars” of GNH, which today form the overall guiding principle for development in Bhutan. The first is sustainable and equitable socio-economic development. This stresses the improvement of physical, intellectual, social, and economic health through services such as health, education, trade and commerce, road and bridge construction, employment, urban development, and housing. As a result, education and health were provided free of cost to all Bhutanese even though the country was still poor. The second pillar is conservation of the environment. Only 16% of Bhutan’s land is 9)arable, so there is pressure to 10)fell trees and sell timber. But the law requires that the proportion of tree cover must not be less than 65%. At present about 72% of Bhutan is forest. The hydropower projects—main drivers of the country’s economy—are mostly “run-of-the-river” schemes which 11)pose far less impact on the environment, and far less human displacement, than would huge dams. The third pillar is preservation and promotion of culture. The Bhutanese government views this as a crucial strategy to preserve the country’s sovereignty. It has implemented policies that conserve and promote Bhutanese religion, language and literature, art and architecture, performing art national dres traditional 12)etiquette, and sports and recreation. For instance, the government requires all Bhutanese to wear traditional dress to office temple and official 13)functions. And the last pillar is good governance. The Bhutanese believe that good governance is vital for the happiness of the people.

  1998年,不丹總理吉格梅·廷里確立了GNH的“四大支柱”,這如今成為不丹發展的總指導方針。第一大支柱是社會經濟的可持續、公平發展,強調通過諸如健康、教育、商業貿易、道路及橋梁建設、就業、城市發展和住房等服務來提高身體、智力、社會和經濟的健康發展。因此,即使這個國家仍然很貧窮,但所有不丹人的教育及健康服務都是國家免費提供的。第二大支柱是環境保護。不丹只有16%的土地是可耕種的,這會迫使當地人通過砍伐樹木和出售木材來謀生。但是該國法律要求樹木的覆蓋率不能低于65%。如今,不丹的森林覆蓋率為72%。國家經濟的主要驅動力——水力發電工程,大多數都是利用河流的天然動力,這些項目對環境的影響較少,并且比那些規模浩大的筑壩發電工程要造成少得多的人口遷徙。第三大支柱是文化的保護及推廣。不丹政府認為這是維護國家主權的重要策略。國家實施了各種政策去保護及推廣不丹的宗教、語言和文學、藝術和建筑、表演藝術、民族服飾、傳統禮儀、運動和娛樂活動。例如,政府要求不丹人上班、去寺廟及出席官方活動時都要穿傳統服裝。最后一大支柱是良好的政府管治。不丹人堅信良好的管理對人們的幸福至關重要。

  While this novel approach to development is still very much a work in progres importantly, it is today serving as a 14)catalyst for broader discussions worldwide on happiness—15)stoking ideas about whether governments and peoples should accept happiness as a legitimate and measurable pursuit. Across the world an increasing number of bureaucrat economist corporate leader and social scientists are discussing the subject.

  “Happines

  as we learn in Buddhism, can only come from within the self, through the understanding of one’s own mind. So GNH is the responsibility of the state to create the right environment where the citizen can seek and find that happines ” said Kinley Dorji, editor-in-chief of Kuensel, Bhutan’s national newspaper.

  That said, GNH does not ignore economic development, according to the Center for Bhutan Studies. On the contrary, economic development planning is critical, but as only one means by which happiness should be achieved. Renata Dessallien, the Resident Coordinator for UN agencies in Bhutan, recently stated, “GNH 16)encapsulates both the quantity and quality of development or ‘progress’. 17)GDP is a quantitative measure only, measuring as it does both ‘goods and bads’. ” For example, Ms. Dessallien argued, “when a sick man receives medication and health care, the GDP increases whether the man recovers or not. But GNH is not only interesting because of its combination of the quantitative and the qualitative, it also conjures up deep philosophical questions on the essence of happiness. And it allows for a relative definition of happines

  according to each person’s perspective.”

  According to her, GNH could provide a practical alternative to the present global development 18)paradigm, which seems continually to confuse means with ends. Indeed, Bhutan has begun work to determine the statistical indicators and 19)indices to measure GNH. Nine 20)provisional GNH indicators have been identified: standard of living; health of population; education; vitality and diversity of ecosystem; cultural vitality and diversity; use and balance of time; good governance; community vitality; and emotional well-being. According to the head of the Center of Bhutan Studie

  Karma Ura, these indicators would be made meaningful in order to drive, guide, and evaluate the policie decision and performance of the government.

  Recently at the GNH international seminar held in 21)Nova Scotia, Canada, two American scientists asked if Bhutan was feeling the weight of the responsibility for GNH. Mr. Thinley—now home and culture minister—said that while Bhutan was under pressure to make GNH work domestically, it did not promise GNH as a solution or formula for everyone. “That will be your responsibility,” he said. “You will have to make GNH work your own way.”

  雖然這種新奇的發展形式仍然在發展當中,但重要的是,如今它已促使全世界的人對“幸福”有了更廣泛的探討——催生了新的想法,諸如政府及人民是否應該將幸福看作是一種合理且可衡量的追求。全球各國越來越多的官員、經濟學家、企業領袖和社會學家們都在討論這個話題。

  不丹官方報紙《Kuensel》的主編肯利·多吉說:“正如我們在佛教中學到的,幸福只能來自于人的內心,要通過了解自己的心靈而獲得。因此GNH是國家的一種職責——去創造合適的環境,讓人們找到那種幸福。”

  一方面是如此,可另一方面,據不丹研究中心稱,GNH并沒有忽視經濟發展。相反,經濟發展規劃是關鍵的,但也只是作為人們獲得幸福快樂的其中一種手段而已。最近,聯合國機構常駐不丹的協調員麗娜塔·得薩里恩表示:“GNP囊括了發展或者說‘進步’的質與量,而GDP僅僅是一種量化標準,不管國家做得‘好與壞’都是如此進行測量。” 例如,“當一個病人接受藥物治療及健康保健,不管他是否康復,GDP都是增長的。但是GNH的有趣之處在于它不僅僅是一種定量和定性的結合,而且它還提出了對幸福本質深刻的哲學思考。并且根據每個人視角的不同,它允許有相對意義上的幸福。”得薩里恩女士解釋道。

  據她所說,現有的經濟發展模式一直將手段與目標混淆,而GNH能夠為全球的經濟發展模式提供一種實用的他選。事實上,不丹已經開始制定數據化的指標和指數來衡量GNH,并且已經暫定了9個GNH指標:生活水平、人口健康、教育、生態系統的活力和多樣性、文化的活力和多樣性、時間的使用和平衡、良好的管治、社會活力和心理健康。據不丹研究中心的負責人卡瑪·烏拉稱,為了推動、指導及評估政府的政策、決策及表現,這些指標意味深長。

  最近,在加拿大新斯科舍省舉行的GNH國際論壇上,兩個美國科學家問及不丹是否感覺到GNH的重大責任。現任不丹家庭及文化部長廷里先生表示,讓GNH在國內發揮效用,不丹承受著一定的壓力,同時,不丹并沒有承諾GNH能夠成為每個人獲得幸福的方法或者公式。“那將是你們的責任,”他說,“你們得按自己的情況來利用好GNH。”


(作者:讀書人網友 編輯:kind887)
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